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Does Having a Dog Make for Well-Adjusted Kids?

MONDAY, July 6, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- If you've hesitated to get a dog because your kids are very young, new research suggests that the preschool years might be a good time to add a furry friend to the family.

The study found that preschoolers with dogs at home had fewer problems with their peers or other behavior problems compared to youngsters without a family dog. Tots who walked and played with their dog more often were likely to be more social, too.

"Young children who walked or played with their family dog were more likely to have pro-social behaviors, such as sharing and cooperating," said study senior author Hayley Christian. She's an associate professor and senior research fellow at the University of Western Australia and Telethon Kids Institute.

Christian added that past research has shown that pets may be helpful for children's self-esteem, autonomy, empathy, trust and confidence.

"For many children, pets are a source of unconditional love and loyalty. They can be social enablers and help teach children about responsibility through caring, training and looking after their pet," she said.

The Australian study used data from a survey of more than 1,600 families with children aged 2 to 5. Many -- 42% -- of the families had dogs. The surveys were done between 2015 and 2018.

Compared to children who didn't have dogs at home, the researchers found that those with a family pooch were:

  • 23% less likely to have problems with emotions and social interactions,

  • 34% more likely to practice kind behaviors like sharing,

  • 30% less apt to engage in antisocial behaviors,

  • 40% less likely to have issues interacting with other kids.

Youngsters who went on dog walks with their family at least once a week were about one-third less likely to have poor social and emotional development than those who didn't go on at least one weekly walk. Kids who played with their dog three or more times a week upped their odds of regularly engaging in considerate behaviors by 74% versus youngsters who played with their dog fewer than three times each week.

Christian noted that although the researchers considered factors in their analysis such as children's age, sex, sleep habits, screen time and parents' education levels, the study couldn't prove a definitive cause-and-effect relationship.

Psychologist Lori Kogan, a professor of clinical science at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University, said the findings are exciting.

"I'm an advocate for research on the positive benefits of people and animals working together. And here it looks like in families that have a dog, their young children may benefit in many ways from having and walking with the dog," she said.

But, Kogan added, "I wonder about the things they weren't able to control the data for. What was the walking experience like? Dogs are a catalyst for conversation. Maybe kids are interacting with people more. It may provide a different opportunity to socially engage. And, is there something different about parents that choose to have dogs?"

While it looks as if there may be a benefit to having a dog in the family, both experts said kids can be just fine without one.

Kogan pointed out that while a dog can be a great companion for kids, now may not be the right time for some people during a global pandemic. "Parents are struggling right now working from home and schooling from home, too," she said.

What about folks who prefer a feline friend? Would a cat offer similar social benefits? Kogan said it's hard to know for sure.

"It depends on whether cat people are significantly different than dog people. Plus, it's not clear specifically what aspect of dog ownership is helpful. Is it the animal and additional bonding or connecting with the animal? Is it walking with the dog? Dogs are proactive about connection and they encourage family dynamics. Even though they're part of the family, cats may not be as present," Kogan explained.

Christian said that in school-age children, having any pet helps prevent social and behavioral problems. But, she wasn't aware of any research with cats and preschool-age children. She noted that the social and behavioral benefits seen in the latest study appeared to stem from playing and walking with dogs, which could be hard to duplicate with a cat.

The findings were published July 5 in Pediatric Research.

More information

Learn more about kids and dogs from the American Kennel Club.

SOURCES: Hayley Christian, Ph.D., associate professor and senior research fellow, University of Western Australia and Telethon Kids Institute, West Perth, Australia; Lori Kogan, Ph.D., psychologist and professor, clinical science, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Pediatric Research, July 5, 2020

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